Canadian Geography 1202

Outcome 1.1 Students will identify aspects of Canada’s northern location.

Relative location: Is the general location of a place described in terms of distance or direction from another place.

Absolute location: Is the exact location of a point on the earth’s surface identified by coordinates.

Physical features: Are features on the earth’s surface caused by natural forces. (eg. river valleys).

Cultural features: Are features on the earth’s surface caused by human activity.

Topographic map Is a detailed map showing physical and cultural features and the elevation, or height of the land.

Lines of latitude: Imaginary lines on the surface of the earth, drawn east-west to show distances North or South of the equator.

Lines of longitude: Imaginary lines on the surface of the earth, drawn north-south from pole to pole to show distances east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Region: An area sharing common physical or cultural features that make it different from other areas, for example, language, ways of making a living, cultural expressions, physical environment, climate and or location.

Atlantic Provinces: The four Atlantic Provinces are: Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. They are considered the Atlantic Provinces because their shores border the Atlantic Ocean.

Atlantic Ocean: This is the ocean on the east coast of Canada...where we live

Pacific Ocean: This is the ocean on the west coast of Canada British Colombia.

Equator The equator is the line that divides the earth into north and south.

Hemisphere By dividing the world into northern and southern hemispheres. A hemisphere is ˝ the world either North or South, or East or West. Each hemisphere contains 180

Old world The Eastern hemisphere is considered the old world

New world The Western hemisphere is considered the new world.

Prime Meridian By dividing the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The 0E line that goes from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England is known as the prime meridian. It is from this line that time is measured for the beginning of each day.

Median The line continues around the world, going from the North Pole to the South Pole and passing through the Pacific Ocean is known as the median. The eastern hemisphere is known as the Old World and the western hemisphere is known as the New World.

3 ways of dividing the globe:

  1. Northern / Southern Hemispheres
  2. Western / Eastern Hemisphers
  3. Climate Zones

Climate Zones: The world can be divided into climate zones, that is each

                                         zone has a different pattern of temperature during the year.

  1. Tropical Zone The tropical zone has warm to hot temperatures all year.
  2. Polar Zone The polar zones has cool to cold temperatures throughout the year

  3.   Temperate Zone The temperate zones located between the polar and tropical zones have both warm and cold seasons. (This is us)

3 ways to compare Canada to other countries

  1. Area This refers to the actual size in km as compared to other countries. Russia is the largest, then Canada, then China, then United States, etc...
  2. Population The number of people living in that country. Canada has approximately 35 million people.
  3. Population Density The relationship between the area and the population of a country is known as the population density. To calculate the population density of a country, divide the population by the area.

Population density = population


Sparsely populated If we say an area is sparsely populated we mean not very many people live there.

Densely populated If we say an area is densely populated we mean a lot of people live there.

Canada is sparsely populated because you average 3 people/km˛.

28 082 400 people = approximately 3 people/km˛

9 922 000 km˛ in area

Wealth Wealth is difficult to measure but one measurement often used is GNP (per capita Gross National Product). This is the yearly value of everything produced in a country divided by the number of people in the country. Only eleven countries in the world have per capita GNPs higher than that of Canada.

Gross National Product GNP -

Standard of Living Another measurement used is standard of living that is how well-off people are in terms of the necessities and luxuries of life. Our standard of living is matched by only a few countries in the world.

Per Capita Per capita means per person

Boundaries Are limits or borders within an area.

Natural boundaries May take the form of mountains, rivers, lakes, seas, etc

Artificial boundaries Those that are not established by any physical feathers

Region An area that shares certain features or characteristics.

Single factor regions Regions that are created based on a single characteristic, such as climate.

Multi-factor regions Regions that are created based on many shared characteristics.

Geographic location The location of a person, place or things on the earth.

Coordinates Lines of latitude and longitude are called coordinates.

Parallels Lines that run side by side and do not intersect - such as lines of latitude.

1 degree Is equal to 111 km on earths surface

Degrees Each degree is divided into 60 minutes

Direction Defined as movement in relation to the North Pole

Cardinal points: Are the four main directions, North, South, West and East

Sun - rises in east and sets in west